By : Titin Titan
During Rasulullah (Muhammad the prophet) era wealth for Zakah include livestock (cattle, camels and goats), treasure (gold and silver) as well as herbs such as wheat, raisins and dates. At that time it was not subjected on horses, because horses are only used for war, unlike on umar era’s it has developed into breed, so the horse subjected for zakat. During Rasulullah until thabi’in Era house is not subjected for zakat, because it is used only for a place to stay. But Imam Ahmad Hanbal had issued alms because the house was rented out and generate a profit.
Abu Bakar Era
During Abu Bakr Era there are many people stated that zakat only applies when the Prophet Muhammad was still alive, so when the Prophet had died they stop the obligation for zakat. But Abu Bakr cracked down the communities who were reluctant to issued zakah at that time. After that Abu Bakr began distributing zakat to those who deserve to accept zakah. He took the treasure from the Baitul Mal in a reasonable ammout and the rest was spent on supplies for Jihad armaments. Abu Bakr divided the zakah benefactor to eight ashnaf (category) without exception. He did not hire guards to guard the Baitul Mal, which he founded, because there is no property left.
Umar bin Khattab Era
During his era, inaugurates amil whose job is to collect and distribute zakah to those who deserve to receive zakah. But Umar no longer distribute zakat to mualaf (the one who convert to islam). He stated that not all people who are new to Islam or mualaf need help. Many of them are wealthy like Suhail bin Amr, Aqra ‘ibn Habis, and Muawiyyah bin Abi Sufyan.
The period of Umar bin Khattab
Umar began instituting Baitul Mal and used it to take care of the financial resources such as treasures collected from the rich, spoils (ghanimah), treasures of crops, livestock, as well as zakah. In addition, at the time it was also subjected to a backup system, which means that not all zakah funds would used up immediateley when it was distributed, but made an allowance which will be allocated in emergency situations such as war and natural disasters. At the time it is hard to find poor people who need zakah. Umar include those who are very carefully treating treasures deposited through Baitul Mal that he created.
Related to the management of zakah, the companions are known to be wara ‘and trustful to manage the zakah. A history illustrates how Usman Umar found in a very hot afternoon was walking in the middle of the desert as if looking for something. When usman asked him to take shelter, Umar refused and he said, “There are two camels of zakah separated from his entourage, I’m afraid the camel is lost and I will be held responsible in front of God the almighty.”
Usman Bin Affan and Ali Era
During this area Usman society was prosperous. And once upon a time, Usman ordered Zaid to distribute the property to the beneficiary but thousand drams was remaining, then Usman told Zaid to spend the rest of the funds to build and prosper Nabawi mosque. In this era it was allowed to pay zakah through the value of money, which is equivalent to 2.5% of the Zakat subjected. Similar practice also applies to the caliphate of Ali bin Abi Talib. Zakat glories more visible when the reign of Umar Bin Abdul Aziz which is less than two years but no longer found poor people who need a help from zakah funds.