KISAH SAHABAT HIJRAH KE MADINAHTHE STORY OF HIJRAH: MIGRATION FOR PEACE AND JUSTICE

Oleh: Fariq Ghasim Anuz

Umar bin Khatab hijrah ke Madinah bersama 20 orang sahabat lainnya. Salah satu di antaranya teman Umar, Iyash bin Rabiah. Sedangkan, teman Umar lainnya, Hisyam bin Ash, berhalangan hijrah.

Tatkala memasuki Madinah, mereka singgah di perkampungan Bani Amru bin Auf di daerah Quba. Sementara, Abu Jahal dan Harits bin Hisyam menyusul Iyash bin Rabi’ah, saudara sepupu mereka sekaligus saudara seibu. Abu Jahal berkata, “Wahai Iyash, ibumu telah bersumpah tidak akan menyisir rambutnya dan tidak akan berteduh dari terik matahari sampai ia melihatmu.”

Mendengar ibunya tidak mau mandi dan selalu berjemur di terik matahari, Iyash merasa kasihan terhadap ibunya. Umar mencoba untuk menenangkan Iyash dan meyakinkannya bahwa ibunya pasti akan mandi dan mesti berteduh dari terik matahari jika Iyash tidak pulang.

Tetapi, Iyash yang sangat dekat dengan ibunya terpengaruh dengan bujuk rayuan Abu Jahal dan Harits. Iyash berkata, “Saya akan menemui ibuku. Saya juga masih punya harta yang tertinggal di Makkah dan saya akan mengambilnya dulu, setelah itu saya bisa kembali ke Madinah.”

Umar khawatir kalau sahabatnya itu akan menjadi murtad karena tidak kuat menghadapi tekanan dari ibu dan kerabatnya. Umar ingin membagi setengah hartanya untuk Iyash asalkan tidak pulang ke Makkah. Iyash menolak tawaran Umar dan tetap memutuskan untuk pulang ke Makkah bersama Abu Jahal.

Umar berujar, “Bila Anda bersikeras untuk kembali ke Makkah, gunakanlah untaku ini! Untaku ini sangat kuat, insya Allah.” Iyash akhirnya kembali ke Makkah bersama Abu Jahal dan Harits.

Umar berkata, “Dulu kami berpandangan, Allah tidak akan memaafkan perbuatan Iyash dan Hisyam. Allah tidak akan menerima tobat mereka yang telah mengenal Allah lalu tidak berhijrah dan kembali kepada kekufuran karena tidak kuat menghadapi ujian.”

Hisyam bin Ash juga mengira bahwa Allah tidak akan mengampuni dosanya akibat tidak berangkat hijrah dan kembali pada kekufuran. Umar berkata, “Ketika Rasulullah Shallallahu Alaihi Wasallam telah sampai di Madinah, Allah SWT menurunkan sebuah ayat tentang perkataan kami dan perkataan mereka tentang sikap mereka, yaitu (yang artinya):

“Katakanlah, ‘Wahai hamba-hamba-Ku yang melampaui batas terhadap diri mereka sendiri, janganlah kalian berputus asa dari rahmat Allah. Sesungguhnya Allah mengampuni dosa-dosa semuanya. Sungguh Dia-lah Yang Maha Pengampun lagi Maha Penyayang. Dan kembalilah kalian kepada Rabbmu dan berserah dirilah kepada-Nya sebelum datang azab kepada kalian kemudian kalian tidak dapat ditolong. Dan ikutilah sebaik-baik apa yang telah diturunkan kepada kalian (Alquran) dari Rabb kalian sebelum datang azab kepada kalian secara mendadak, sedang kalian tidak menyadarinya.'” (QS az-Zumar [39]: 53-55)

Umar mengatakan, “Lalu aku menulis firman Allah tersebut di atas secarik kertas dan aku kirimkan kepada Hisyam bin Ash.” Hisyam berkata, “Setelah surat Umar itu sampai ke tangan saya, saya membacanya di Dzi Thuwa (nama sebuah lembah di Makkah), saya naik ke puncak bukit sambil membawa surat tersebut. Saya terus membacanya berkali-kali, tapi masih saja saya belum dapat memahaminya. Hingga akhirnya saya berdoa, “Wahai Allah, pahamkanlah aku tentangnya.”

“Lalu Allah pun memberikan pemahaman ke dalam dadaku bahwa ayat ini tentang ucapan kami, tentang diri kami, dan pendapat yang diarahkan kepada kami. Aku kemudian menghampiri untaku. Aku naiki dan segera menyusul Rasulullah Shallallahu Alaihi Wasallam ke Madinah.”

Doktor Nabil Al Awadhi menceritakan bahwa akhirnya Hisyam bin Ash dan Iyash bin Rabi’ah berangkat kembali hijrah ke Madinah untuk membuka kembali lembaran hidup mereka yang baru bersama Rasulullah Shallallahu Alaihi Wasallam, Umar bin Khatab, dan sahabat-sahabat lainnya radhiallahu anhum ajma’in.

Sumber: republika.co.id
After Muhammad had preached publicly for more than a decade, the opposition to him reached such a high pitch that, fearful for their safety, he sent some of his adherents to Ethiopia, where the Christian ruler extended protection to them, the memory of which has been cherished by Muslims ever since. But in Mecca the persecution worsened. Muhammad’s followers were harassed, abused, and even tortured. At last, therefore, Muhammad sent seventy of his followers off to the northern town of Yathrib, which was later to be renamed Medina (“The City”). Later, in the early fall of 622, he learned of a plot to murder him and, with his closest friend, Abu Bakr al-Siddiq, set off to join the emigrants.

In Mecca the plotters arrived at Muhammad’s home to find that his cousin, ‘Ali, had taken his place in bed. Enraged, the Meccans set a price on Muhammad’s head and set off in pursuit. Muhammad and Abu Bakr, however, had taken refuge in a cave where, as they hid from their pursuers, a spider spun its web across the cave’s mouth. When they saw that the web was unbroken, the Meccans passed by and Muhammad and Abu Bakr went on to Medina, where they were joyously welcomed by a throng of Medinans as well as the Meccans who had gone ahead to prepare the way.

This was the Hijrah – anglicized as Hegira – usually, but inaccurately, translated as “Flight” – from which the Muslim era is dated. In fact, the Hijrah was not a flight but a carefully planned migration which marks not only a break in history – the beginning of the Islamic era- but also, for Muhammad and the Muslims, a new way of life. Henceforth, the organizational principle of the community was not to be mere blood kinship, but the greater brotherhood of all Muslims. The men who accompanied Muhammad on the Hijrah were called the Muhajirun – “those that made the Hijrah” or the “Emigrants” – while those in Medina who became Muslims were called the Ansar or “Helpers.”

Muhammad was well acquainted with the situation in Medina. Earlier, before the Hijrah, the city had sent envoys to Mecca asking Muhammad to mediate a dispute between two powerful tribes. What the envoys saw and heard had impressed them and they had invited Muhammad to settle in Medina. After the Hijrah, Muhammad’s exceptional qualities so impressed the Medinans that the rival tribes and their allies temporarily closed ranks as, on March 15, 624, Muhammad and his supporters moved against the pagans of Mecca.

The first battle, which took place near Badr, now a small town southwest of Medina, had several important effects. In the first place, the Muslim forces, outnumbered three to one, routed the Meccans. Secondly, the discipline displayed by the Muslims brought home to the Meccans, perhaps for the first time, the abilities of the man they had driven from their city. Thirdly, one of the allied tribes which had pledged support to the Muslims in the Battle of Badr, but had then proved lukewarm when the fighting started, was expelled from Medina one month after the battle. Those who claimed to be allies of the Muslims, but tacitly opposed them, were thus served warning: membership in the community imposed the obligation of total support.

A year later the Meccans struck back. Assembling an army of three thousand men, they met the Muslims at Uhud, a ridge outside Medina. After an initial success the Muslims were driven back and the Prophet himself was wounded. As the Muslims were not completely defeated, the Meccans, with an army of ten thousand, attacked Medina again two years later but with quite different results. At the Battle of the Trench, also known as the Battle of the Confederates, the Muslims scored a signal victory by introducing a new defense. On the side of Medina from which attack was expected they dug a trench too deep for the Meccan cavalry to clear without exposing itself to the archers posted behind earthworks on the Medina side. After an inconclusive siege, the Meccans were forced to retire. Thereafter Medina was entirely in the hands of the Muslims.

Source: http://www.islamicity.org/6327/history-of-hijrah-migration-for-peace-and-justice/

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