TIPOLOGI IBADAH HAJITYPOLOGY OF HAJJ

Oleh: Imam Nur Suharno

Musim haji telah tiba. Jutaan kaum Muslimin dari seluruh penjuru dunia secara bertahap bergerak menuju Tanah Suci untuk menjalankan rukun Islam yang kelima, yaitu ibadah haji.

Dalam pelaksanaannya, banyak hal yang kadang melatarbelakangi seseorang dalam menjalankan ibadah haji, sebagaimana disinyalir oleh Rasulullah SAW. “Akan datang suatu masa yang dialami umat manusia, yaitu orang kaya dari umatku yang melaksanakan ibadah haji (niatnya) karena wisata, orang kalangan menengah (niatnya) karena berdagang, orang kalangan ahli pengetahuan (niatnya) karena ria dan sumah, dan kaum fakir di antara mereka (niatnya) karena untuk meminta-minta.” (HR Ibnu Jauzy).

Hadis di atas memberikan peringatan kepada jamaah haji agar selalu menjaga keikhlasan sebelum, selama, dan setelah menjalankan ibadah haji.
Sebab, tidak sedikit orang yang pergi ke Tanah Suci dengan latar belakang (niat) yang berbeda-beda, itulah tipologi seseorang dalam menjalakan ibadah haji.

Pertama, untuk berwisata. Yaitu, ibadah haji yang dilaksanakan bertujuan untuk jalan-jalan. Sehingga, aktivitasnya di Tanah Suci lebih semangat jika diajak untuk jalan-jalan daripada ke masjid.

Dan, ibadah yang dilaksanakan selama di Tanah Suci tidak berpengaruh terhadap perbaikan pribadi, keluarga, dan masyarakatnya, melainkan agar masyarakat menilainya sebagai orang yang kaya.

Kedua, untuk berdagang. Yaitu, seseorang yang menunaikan ibadah haji bertujuan untuk berbelanja. Sehingga, aktivitasnya selama di Tanah Suci lebih banyak aktivitas berdagang atau berbelanja daripada ibadah kepada Allah SWT.

Ketiga, karena ria dan sum’ah. Yaitu, seseorang yang melaksanakan ibadah haji sekadar untuk mengejar status sosial kemasyarakatan, yakni gelar haji. Sehingga, ia mudah tersinggung jika tidak disebutkan gelar hajinya.

Keempat, untuk meminta-minta. Yaitu, kalangan kaum fakir yang berangkat ke Tanah Suci untuk mengharap belas-kasihan dengan harapan sekembalinya dari Tanah Suci, ia dapat mengumpulkan harta yang cukup. Sehingga, ia menjadikan aktivitas meminta-minta itu sebagai profesi tahunan baginya.

Dengan demikian, balasan bagi orang yang melandaskan niat ibadah hajinya sebagaimana di atas maka ia akan mendapatkan sesuai dengan apa yang diniatkannya.

Sabda Nabi SAW, ”Sesungguhnya, setiap perbuatan bergantung niatnya. Dan, sesungguhnya setiap orang (akan dibalas) berdasarkan apa yang dia niatkan.” (HR Bukhari dan Muslim).

Sedangkan, seseorang yang pergi hajinya atas dasar iman dan ikhlas semata karena Allah, tidak berbuat rafats, tidak berbuat fusuk, dan tidak melakukan jidal selama haji (QS al-Baqarah [2]: 197), niscaya ia akan meraih predikat haji mabrur yang balasannya adalah surga (HR Bukhari dan Muslim).

Semoga Allah meluruskan niat kaum Muslimin yang tengah menjalankan ibadah haji dengan niat semata karena-Nya dan meraih haji yang mabrur. Amin.

Sumber: republika.co.idThere are three types or methods of performing Hajj.

The type you choose will depend on:
1. Whether you live in Makkah or not.
2. Whether you wish to perform ‘Umrah along with Hajj.
3. Or whether you are desirous of offering an animal for sacrifice or not.

Details of the three methods of Hajj:

1. Hajj Tamattu Consist of the Following:

– Hajj combined with ‘Umrah with ‘two’ Neeyah
– The person is called a Mutamatti.
– Enter into the state of Ihraam with a Neeyah for ‘Umrah (the first Neeyah)

Regulations:
•Perform ‘Umrah during the months of Hajj of the same year, and this must be completed before beginning the rites of Hajj.
•The first Tawaaf made, is that of ‘Umrah and the Tawaaf-ul-Qudoom (Tawaaf upon arrival in Makkah) is not required.
•The performance of the Sa’ee is a must. This is Sa’ee for ‘Umrah and not for Hajj. The Sa’ee for Hajj must be performed with Tawaaf-ul-Ifaadah
•The Mutamatti should clip his hair after ‘Umrah instead of shaving it to come out of the state of Ihraam after the Sa’ee for ‘Umrah (if he has time before Hajj to re-grow his hair, then he should shave it after completing his ‘Umrah.
•The Mutamatti must come out of the state of Ihraam after the ‘Umrah (all the Ihraam restrictions are lifted for the Mutamatti).
•Animal sacrifice is compulsory for the Mutamatti. If he cannot afford it, he is required to fast for ten days. This applies to the Qaarin also.

“… But if someone cannot afford a sacrifice, he can fast three days during Hajj and seven days after returning home. That is ten days in all…” (Soorah Al- Baqarah [2]: Aayah 196)

•The Mutamatti enters back into the state of Ihraam with the Neeyah for Hajj (the second neeyah), from wherever he is on the morning of the 8th of Dhul-Hijjah. Thereafter he / she depart Makkah to Mina.
•The pilgrim is allowed to change his/her (Ihraam) clothes for clean ones.
•Those living in Makkah cannot perform this method of Hajj.

“…This is for him whose family is not present at Al-Masjid-al-haram (i.e. non resident of Makkah…”remain

2. Hajj Qiran:

– Hajj combined with Umrah without coming out of Ihraam.
– The person is called a Qaarin.
– Enter into Ihraam with neeyah for ‘Umrah and Hajj.

Regulations:
•Animal sacrifice is compulsory
•Some scholars rule that it is a pre-requisite for the pilgrim to have the sacrificial animal with him. Meaning that if he did not have the animal with him he must perform the Tamattu method instead.
•Hence, the pilgrim who has the animal with him cannot change his Neeyah. However, the Qaarin who did not bring the animal with him should change his Neeyah to Tamattu. Some scholars say it is a must!
•Upon arrival in Makkah the pilgrim performs Tawaaf-ul-Qudoom (welcome Tawaaf). This is optional, as the pilgrim may go directly to Mina on the 8th of Dhul-Hijjah from his Meeqaat.
•The Sa’ee for Hajj may also be performed with this Tawaaf (recommended).
•The Qaarin must remain in Ihraam no matter how long the period between his arrival in Makkah and Hajj may be.
•The pilgrim is allowed to change his/her (Ihraam) clothes with clean ones (not normal clothes for men, but another Ihram).
•Those living in Makkah cannot perform this method of Hajj. See ayah (2:196) above.

3. Hajj ifrad:

– Hajj without umrah.
– Person is called a Mufrid.
– Enter into Ihram with niyah for Hajj only.

Regulations:
•Animal sacrifice is optional.
•Not to perform umrah during the Hajj months of the same year.
•On arrival in Makkah the pilgrim performs Tawaaf-al-Qudoom (welcome tawaaf). This is optional, as the pilgrim may go direstly to mina on the 8th of Dhul-Hijja from his meqaat.
•The sa’ee for the Hajj may also be performed with this tawaaf. If it is done here, it places the pilgrim in the same position as the qariin, with regards to the order of changing his niyah to tamattu.
•The mufrid must remain in the state of Ihram no matter how long the period between his arrival Makkah and Hajj may be.
•The pilgrim is alloweed to change his/her Ihram with clothes that are clean ( not normal clothes for men, but another ihram)
•This Hajj is for those living in Makkah or those within the meqaat area.(see surah 2:196)
•If circumstances permit ( time and one chooses to sacrifice), the Mufrid can change his niyah from Ifrad to Qiran or Tamattu. If he does this, then he should follow the rules accordingly, as described previously. Residents of Makkah cannot change their niyah.

The above named three methods fulfill all the requirements for the Hajj. However, the best method is Tamattu’ as recommended and done by the Prophet as narrated in Saheeh Muslim:”When the Prophet performed Tawaaf and Sa’ee during the year of the Farewell Hajj with his companions, he ordered all those who hadn’t brought their sacrificial animals to change their Neeyah for Hajj to Neeyah for ‘Umrah, cut their hair and disengage from Ihraam until Hajj.”

He said: [If I had not brought the sacrificial animal, I would have done what I’ve ordered you to do.”

There are some minor differences of opinion on the matter of when a pilgrim performs ‘Umrah during the Hajj months. The issue arises only when the pilgrim leaves Makkah after having performed Umrah. As an example: the pilgrim comes to MAKKAH AND PERFORMS UMRAH AND THEN LEAVES FOR Jeddah and Riyadh or back overseas. He now returns for Hajj.

Can he do Ifrad or is he Tamattu? Some scholars say that once the pilgrim leaves the meqaat area, Tamattu is “cancelled” and the pilgrim can now do ifrad or have to do ‘Umrah again once he returns in order to do Tamattu. Another view is that it doesn’t matter: as long as the ‘Umrah was done in the Hajj months, the person is automatically Tamuttu, even though he left the meqaat area. Anyway, I only put this here for completeness, as this “problem” does not affect the majority of the pilgrims.

Source: http://www.khalidmosque.com/english/types-of-hajj

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